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The Diabetes mellitus commonly referred to as Diabetes . Diabetes mellitus is a disease of the pancreas. It is a metabolic disorder , When a person has diabetes, the pancreas either cannot produce enough insulin, uses the insulin incorrectly, or both. Insulin works together with glucose (sugar) in the bloodstream to help it enter the body's cells to be burned for energy. If the insulin isn't functioning properly, glucose cannot enter the cells. This causes glucose levels in the blood to rise, creating a condition of high blood sugar or diabetes, and leaving the cells without fuel This disorder is characterized by constant high levels of blood glucose (sugar). Human body has to maintain the blood glucose level at a very narrow range, which is done with hormone insulin.

What are the common types of diabetes?

There are two common forms of diabetes: type 1 and type 2

    Type 1: Type 1 diabetes occurs because the insulin-producing cells of the pancreas (beta cells) are damaged. In type 1 diabetes, the pancreas makes little or no insulin, so sugar cannot get into the body's cells for use as energy. People with type 1 diabetes must use insulin injections to control their blood glucose. Type 1 is the most common form of diabetes in people under age 20-30, but it can occur at any age. Ten percent of people with diabetes are diagnosed with type 1.

  • Type 2: In type 2 diabetes, the pancreas makes insulin, but it either doesn't produce enough insulin or the insulin does not work properly. Type 2 diabetes may sometimes be controlled with a combination of diet, weight management and exercise. However, treatment also may include oral glucose-lowering medications or insulin injections.
    Generally, type 2 diabetes is more common in people over age 40 who are overweight. However, Nine out of 10 people with diabetes have type 2.

    Gestational Diabetes : Gestational diabetes occurs when there is a high blood glucose level during pregnancy. As pregnancy progresses, the developing baby has an increased need for glucose. Hormone changes during pregnancy also affect the action of insulin, resulting in high blood glucose levels.

    Pregnant women who have an increased risk of developing gestational diabetes include those who:

  • Are over 25 years old
  • Are above their desired body weight
  • Have a family history of diabetes
  • Usually, blood glucose levels return to normal after childbirth. However, women who have had gestational diabetes have an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes later in life.

    Risk Factor

  • Obesity
  • Race
  • History of CVD
  • HTN
  • Physical inactivity
  • Familial history
  • Polycystic Ovary Syndrome
  • Gestational Diabetes

Symptom Of Diabetes :

  • No symptoms might be noticed in the early stages of diabetes, but damage may already be happening to the eyes, kidneys and cardiovascular system.
    Type 2 diabetes typically develops slowly, whereas type 1 diabetes develops over a short period. Some of the common symptoms include the following:
  • Extreme hunger
  • Extreme thirst
  • Frequent urination
  • Unexplained weight loss
  • Fatigue or drowsiness
  • Blurry vision - when the eyes start getting affected
  • Slow-healing wounds, sores or bruises Dry, itchy skin
  • Tingling or numbness in the hands or feet - when the nerves get affected
  • Frequent or recurring skin, gum, bladder or vaginal yeast infections
  • When the cardiovascular system gets affected it leads to high blood pressure, cholesterol & heart problems
  • It can also cause skipped or absent periods in teen girls and women.

  • Fasting sugar blood tests or with HbA1c blood tests, also known as glycated hemoglobin tests. The ranges for the following tests are as follows:
  • Fasting Glucose Test
  • Normal Less Then
    Pre-diabetes 100-125
    Diabetes 126 or Higher

  • Random (anytime)/ Post Parental Glucose Test
  • Normal Less Then
    Pre-diabetes 140-199
    Diabetes 200 or Higher

    Oral Glucose Tolerance Test: diabetes is diagnosed if glucose level is higher than 200 mg/dL 2 hours after drinking a glucose drink.

    HbA1c Test

    Normal Less than 5.6%
    Pre-diabetes 5.7 - 6.4%

    Diabetes 6.5% or higher-

    Urine analysis :

  • Glycosuria
  • Ketone bodies

  • Possible complications include:

  • Cardiovascular disease.
  • Nerve damage (neuropathy).
  • Kidney damage (nephropathy).
  • Eye damage (retinopathy).
  • Foot damage.
  • Skin conditions.
  • Hearing impairment.
  • Alzheimer's disease.

  • 'Awareness is the only Cure for Diabetes'

    Preventing Diabetes Complications

  • Blood glucose (sugar) control
  • Blood pressure control
  • Blood lipid (fat) control
  • Preventive care practices for eyes, kidneys, feet, teeth and gums

  • Strong Will Power, Motivation & Determination to achieve Success

    The most important step is to have a positive attitude and persistence of efforts to succeed in any sphere of life. Don't be afraid of failures. Remember that leading a healthy life is in your own hands.

  • Healthy Diet: Always eat healthy, small & frequent (3 major with 2 small snacks in between) meals. Eat a Low Glycemic Index (Complex Carbohydrates) and High fiber diet i.e. whole grains, vegetables, beans etc. These foods are nutritious and digested more slowly, thus resulting in slow rise of blood glucose (unlike refined food such as sugar, polished rice porridge & bread). Do not to skip any meal and eat according to schedule. Always eat home cooked food. You should eat one fruit (approx. 200-250 gms) a day. Mango, Cheekoo, Banana and Grapes. Don't go for "fad" (Low Carb & Very Low Calorie) diets, instead go for long term 'healthy-eating plan'. Choose right kind of foods
    Always do regular exercise (at least 5 days/week) as per your need and fitness (cardiovascular) and strictly adhere to it. Adopt an active lifestyle. Exercise helps in controlling blood glucose, blood pressure and lipids. It also helps you to fight against diabetes and its complication. Research shows that both 'Aerobic Exercise' and 'Resistance Training' can help control Diabetes, but the Greatest Benefit comes from a 'Fitness Program" that includes both.